Lighting design for an outdoor parking lot
With the development of the economy, cars have become a common means of transportation for people. The city parking lot enables the cars in the city to operate normally and smoothly. The parking lot is developing into an indispensable component of the city, and its illumination should also be taken seriously. Targeted lighting in the parking lot is both a guarantee of use and a need to ensure property and personal safety.
The design of the parking lot lighting referenced in this article is an outdoor parking lot with 778 open-air parking spaces, which are mainly used by foreign residents. The width of the road (including the parking space) is about 14 meters or 12 meters. One in and out of the bayonet. The floor material is asphalt overlay.
3. Lighting technical requirements
3.1 Design ideas
3.1.1 Illumination standard: Refer to the current national standard “Outdoor Workplace Lighting Design Standards” GB 50582-2010, and “City Road Lighting Design Standards” CJJ 45-2015 related standards for all types of outdoor parking lot illumination indicators Related requirements. GB 50582-2010 stipulates that “Class I (>400 vehicles) parking lot, the standard value of horizontal illumination is 30lx, and the uniformity of horizontal illumination needs to reach 0.25 or more”. CJJ 45-2015 stipulates: “According to the traffic volume, the parking lot with high traffic volume, the average horizontal illumination Eh, av (lx) maintains a value of 20lx, and the illumination uniformity needs to reach 0.25 or more.” For the parking lot entrance and toll collection, “Outdoor Workplace Lighting Design Standards” GB 50582-2010 stipulates that “the illumination of the entrance and toll booths of the parking lot should not be lower than 50lx.” This parking lot uses Class I illumination of GB 50582-2010. Standard, horizontal illumination standard value is 30lx.
3.1.2 Lighting analysis and requirements for each component of the parking lot:
(1) Entrance and exit – entrance and exit of the parking lot need to check the verification parts, charge, identify the driver’s face, facilitate communication between the staff and the driver; railings, facilities on both sides of the entrance and exit, and The ground must be provided with appropriate lighting to ensure safe driving by the driver, so the lighting here should be properly reinforced and targeted for these operations. GB 50582-2010 stipulates that the illumination of the entrance and toll of the parking lot should not be lower than 50lx.
(2) Signs, markings – The signs in the yard are required to be seen by being illuminated, so the lighting of the signs should be taken into consideration when designing the lighting. Then there is the marking on the ground. When setting up the lighting, you should ensure that all the markings are clearly displayed.
(3) Body parking space – for the illumination requirements of the parking space, it is necessary to ensure that the ground marking, ground lock and isolation railing are clearly displayed to ensure that the driver does not hit the ground obstacle due to insufficient illumination when entering the parking space. . After the vehicle is parked, the body needs to be displayed with appropriate lighting to facilitate identification by other drivers and access to the vehicle.
(4) Pedestrian route – When a pedestrian picks up a car or gets off the bus, there will be a walking road. The road should be considered for the lighting according to the ordinary pedestrian road, providing suitable ground lighting and vertical lighting. The pedestrian route of this yard is mixed with the roadway and is considered according to the standard of the roadway.
(5) Environmental interference – The environment of the parking lot should have certain illumination for the sake of safety and identification. However, the impact on the atmosphere outside the venue should be reduced. After all, vehicles or parking lots are not aesthetic decorations in the public environment, and they may damage the original harmony of the environment. The above problems can be improved by arranging the lamps, and an array is formed around the parking lot by providing a continuous light pole, which can function as a line of sight barrier, so as to achieve an isolation effect inside and outside the parking lot.
3.2 Lighting quality requirements
In addition to the basic illumination requirements for the lighting of the parking lot, other such as the uniformity of illumination; the color rendering and color temperature requirements of the light source; glare is also an important indicator to measure the quality of the lighting. High-quality venue lighting creates a relaxed and visual environment for drivers and pedestrians.
4. Lighting method and lamp selection
4.1 lighting method
Reasonable lighting design is very important for improving illumination uniformity, three-dimensionality, reducing glare and meeting lighting requirements. The parking lights in the parking lot are different, and the lighting effects are quite different. At present, many parking lots in China use high pole lights or semi-high pole lights, and there are few lighting arrangements. The problem with such parking lots is that the uniformity of lighting in the entire parking lot is relatively poor, and when the vehicle is stopped a little more, it will form. Block shadows and increase their unevenness. In contrast, the use of ordinary street light poles, the arrangement of the lamps is relatively large (relative to the former). The investigation found that this type of lighting method is more convenient to use when the illuminance of the latter is the same as that of the former by reasonable distribution of lamps and targeted selection of lamps. People reflect better.
Therefore, combined with the above analysis of the current situation and the layout characteristics of the parking lot, the parking lot is designed with low-level single-head street lights and half-cut light fixtures, arranged in a row at the boundary of the site, with many lighting arrangements, improving illumination uniformity. At the same time, reduce the light interference caused by the parking lot to surrounding roads and buildings. The arrangement of the specific lamps: the installation height of the lamps is 8 meters, and the street lamp poles are installed in the form of floor-to-side installation on both sides of the parking spaces on both sides (the road width is 14 meters) with a spacing of 25 meters. The lamp installation power is 126W. Appropriately close the distance between the lamps at the entrance and exit to improve the illumination level.
4.2 Lamp selection
HID lamps and LED lamps are common choices. LEDs are solid-state light sources. They are small in size, fast in response, can be combined in modules, and can be adjusted in power. The characteristics of DC power supply drive bring great convenience to the manufacture of lamps. Moreover, in recent years, with the support and promotion of the government, the speed of development is very fast, and the price of the light source is reduced rapidly, which creates favorable conditions for LED applications. And considering the requirements of safety, security, feature identification, inspection of documents, environmental atmosphere, etc., LED lamps are used in this design. The specific lamp parameters are as follows: the light output rate of the lamp is more than 85%, the power factor of the LED lamp is above 0.95, the overall luminous efficiency of the LED is above 100lm/W, the power efficiency of the lamp is ≥85%, the color temperature of the LED lamp is 4000K~4500K, and the color rendering coefficient Ra ≥70. The service life is more than 30,000 hours, the protection level of the lamps is above IP65, and the protection against electric shock is I. Based on the above parameter requirements. This design selects LG S13400T29BA CE_LG LED Street Light 126W 4000K Type II lamps produced by LG.
1. Lighting control method
Two control modes, light control and time control, are set separately, and manual control switches are set at the same time to adapt to different operational requirements. In the light control mode, when the natural illuminance level reaches 30lx, the light is turned off, and when the natural illuminance drops to 80%~50% of 30lx, the light is turned on. In the time control mode, the warp and weft clock controller is used to control the switch light time according to the geographical location and seasonal changes.
2. Illumination calculation value
The simulation results of the above design contents using the DIALux illumination software are shown in Figure 2 (unit: Lux).
Average illuminance [lx]: 31; minimum illuminance [lx]: 25; maximum illuminance [lx]: 36;
Minimum illumination / average illumination: 0.812;
Minimum illumination / maximum illumination: 0.703.
It can be seen that the above design lighting method can well meet the standard requirements (average illumination: 31lx>30lx, horizontal illumination uniformity 0.812>0.25), and has better illumination uniformity.
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Post time: Dec-11-2018